Generation of Computer : Important Points to Know

Generation of Computer

Hello Aspirants, Today in this chapter we will discuss different generation of computers and components used in it.

Generation of computer is an important topic of computer awareness from which many questions are asked in various competitive exams.

Generation of Computers include the improvement in technology in both hardware as well as software which together make up an entire computer system.
Mainly questions are asked on different generation of computer :
  • First Generation of Computer
  • Second Generation of Computer
  • Third Generation of Computer
  • Fourth Generation of Computer
  • Fifth Generation of Computer
What is computer | Short Definition of Computer | Computer Meaning

First Generation of Computer

  • used vacuum tube for circuitry
  • used magnetic drum as primary storage
  • used binary machine language ( 0 & 1 ) which is lowest level programming language
  • speed equivalent to 333 micro seconds
  • used batch operating system
  • used punch cards for input and printouts for output
  • used for scientific computations
  • Example : ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ) UNIVAC ( Universal Automatic Computer ) EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator )
Disadvantages :
  • very large in size
  • not portable
  • consume lots of electricity
  • limited internal storage capacity
  • generate large amount of heat
  • very expensive
  • not reliable
  • slow processing speed
Computer Application : Uses of Computer in Our Daily Life

Second Generation of Computer

  • used transistors instead of vacuum tubes for circuitry
  • used magnetic core instead of magnetic drum as primary storage device
  • used assembly language which is a high level programming language
  • speed equivalent to 10 micro second
  • used time sharing or multitasking operating system
  • used punch cards for input and printouts for output
  • used for commercial purposes as well as scientific and engineering analysis & design
  • Example : IBM ( international business machine corp. ) 7094 series, PDP ( programmed data processor ) 8, IBM 1401 series
Note : As transistors were used instead of vacuum tubes in 2nd generation computer it enabled the computer of this generation to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy efficient & portable.

Disadvantages :
  • not used for personal use
Computer Awareness : History of Computer in English

Third Generation of Computer

  • used IC ( integrated circuit ) which has several transistors mounted through SSI ( small scale integration )
  • used magnetic core as primary storage medium
  • used high level programming language such as COBOL ( common business oriented language ) FORTRAN etc.
  • speed equivalent to 100 nano second
  • real time operating system were used
  • used monitors and keyboards instead of punch cards and printouts
  • used for database management, automatic industrial control, airline reservation etc. 
  • available for personal use
  • Example : IBM 360 series, IBM 370 series
Disadvantages :
  • IC ( Intergrated Circuit ) chips used are difficult to maintain

Fourth Generation of Computer

  • used large scale integrated ( LSI ) & VLSI circuit having thousands of transistors
  • uses semiconductor memories ( RAM, ROM)
  • uses high level programming language FORTRAN ( Formula Translation ), COBOL including c, c++ etc.
  • speed equivalent to 10 pico second
  • time sharing system with GUI ( Graphical User interface ) operating system were used
  • used monitors, keyboard instead of punch card & printout
  • high capacity hard disk were used
  • used in almost every field including space applications, business and art work
  • Computer of this generation is also known as micro computer
  • Example : Intel 4004 chip
Advantages :
  • smaller in size
  • used for personal use
  • less expensive
  • consume less electricity
  • portable
  • reliable
  • high processing speed
  • external memory can be used

Fifth Generation of Computer

  • based on artificial intelligence
  • super large scale integrated ( SLSI ) chips were used
  • parallel processing were used
  • not fully implemented and thus still under development
  • voice reorganization and bio metric sensor were used

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