#### Hello Aspirants, In this chapter we will deal with " History of Computer in English "

History of Computer is an important topic under which many questions are asked in various competitive exams, thus please go through this topic.

Under history of computer, we will see various stages of advancement in technology in development of computer.

**ABACUS**

- Invented
By
**BABYLONIA**in 2400 B.C. - First Mechanical Device used for calculation
- First Calculation Device
- Perform Basic Arithmetic Operations

**NAPIER's BONES**

- Invented
By
**John Napier**in 1614 - Allows operators to carry out basic calculations such as multiply, divide, square root & cube root
- Three Dimensional Structure, Technology – Rabdologia for calculation

**SLIDE RULE**

- Invented
By
**William Oughtred**in 1622 - Was
based on Napier’s idea
**“Logarithm”** - Used for multiplication, divide, root, logarithm & trigonometry
- Not used for add & difference

**PASCALINE**

- Invented
By
**Blaise Pascal**in 1642 - Only for add & difference
- First mechanical adding machine
- Too Costly

**STEPPED RECKONER**

- Invented
By
**Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz**in 1672 - Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide Automatically

**JACQUARD LOOM**

- It is also known as
**Card of Holes for Weaving Pattern** - Invented
By
**Joseph Jacquard**in 1801 - First Mechanical Loom
- Punched Cards were used
- Perform Basic Arithmetic Operations

**ARITHMOMETER**

- Invented
By
**Thomas de Colmar**in 1820 - First Commercial Calculating Machine
- Mass Produced Calculating Machine
- Perform Basic Mathematical Operations

**DIFFERENCE ENGINE & ANALYTICAL ENGINE**

- Invented By Charles Babbage in 1822 & 1834-1871
- To program the machine used two punch cards
- First general purpose computer
- Stored program in form of pegs/barrels
**Charles Babbage**is known as**“father of computer”**- Basic Arithmetic
- Decimal machine used sign and magnitude for number representation
**Augusta Ada Byron**is known as**“first programmer”**as she had written the program for Analytical Engine and thus known as**Augusta Ada Byron**advised**Charles Babbage**to use binary system

**SCHEUTZIAN CALCULATION ENGINE**

- Invented
By Per
**George Scheutz**in 1843 - Based on Difference Engine
- First printing calculator

**TABULATING MACHINE**

- Invented
By
**Herman Hollerith**in 1880 - Punched Cards were used
- First electromechanical machine which was designed to process data for census in 1890

**MARK 1**

- Invented
by
**Howard H.Aiken**in 1943-1944 - First electromechanical computer
- Used magnetic drums for storage
- Data entered manually

**Z 1**

- Invented
by
**Konrad Zuse**in 1936-1938 - First programmable computer
- Punch tape reader was used
- Output generated by punch tape

**ABC**

- Stands for
**Atanasoff Berry Computer** - Invented by John Atanasoff & Cliffhord Berry in 1939-1942
- First electronic digital computing device

**ENIAC**

- Stands for
**Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator** - Invented by John Presper Eckert & John W.Mauchly in 1946-1950
- First electronic digital computer
- Used for weather prediction, atomic energy calculations & other scientific uses

**EDVAC**

- Stands for
**Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer** - Invented
by
**John Von Neumann**in 1952 - First stored program computer
- Memory to store data and program
- Introduced system of binary language

**UNIVAC**

- Stands for
**Universal Automatic Computer** - It is also known as EDVAC - 2
- Invented by John Presper Eckert & John W.Mauchly in 1951
- First general purpose electronic computer
- Deal both numbers & text, magnetic tape were used for input & output

**EDSAC**

- Stands for
**Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer** - Constructed by Maurice Wilkes on theory of EDVAC
- Second electronic digital stored-program computer
- Constructed at university of Cambridge mathematical laboratory

EMCC

- Stands for
**Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation** - First Computer company established by John Presper Eckert & John W.Mauchly in 1947

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