Basic Computer Organization

Basic Computer Organization

   The size, shape, performance, reliability, and cost of computer Systems have changing over the years, but the basic logical structure (based on the program concept) as proposed by Von Neumann has not changed. All computer systems (shape and size) follow the five basic operations, for converting raw input data into information, which is useful to their user.

 Inputting: The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system.

Storage: Saving data and instructions to make them readily available for initial or additional processing, as and when required.

Processing: Performing arithmetic operations (add subtract, multiple, divide, etc.) or logical operations (comparisons like equal to, less than greater than, etc.) on data, to convert them into useful information.

Outputting: The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display.

Controlling: Directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

  The goal of this discussion is to familiarize with the computer system units, which perform these functions. It will provide an overview of computer systems, as they are viewed by computer system architects.

            The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another. However, the organization remains the same for all computer systems. A block diagram of the basic computer organization is shown in Figure1. In this figure, the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data, and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. It displays the five major building blocks (functional units) of a digital computer system. These five units correspond to the basic operations, performed by all computer systems. The functions of each of these units are described below.

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